The Restoration & The Republic
In 1815, Napoleon's shadow still hung over France. The Bourbon dynasty suffered the consequences.
Of course, the newly restored monarchy felt its effects, weighed down by threats of revolution. The protective railings and moat of Tuileries palace in Paris were extended. The announcement of Napoleon's death on Saint Helena in 1821 strengthened the Bonapartist party. After his death in 1824 Louis XVIII was succeeded by his brother, Charles X.
Through opposition from the political parties, indecisive elections and press opinion, the French continued to demonstrate while the French army ensured the conquest of Algeria.
These were the Glorious Three - days of revolution - in July 1830, which resulted in the exile of Charles X, then in the accession of his cousin, Louis-Philippe, thanks to Adolphe Thiers, a royalist politician. The number of social movements in France increased. The people grumbled, the bourgeoisie grew rich, intellectuals tried to have their say. Revolutionary movements, inspired by the French Revolution, sprang up all over Europe.
The writer, Lamartine, played a dominant role during the 1848 Revolution. Civil war threatened both Paris and France. The condition of the workers had become miserable. Unemployment, hours worked, and universal suffrage were the topics of the day. The Second Republic responded with violence at the barricades of Paris. Disorder and violence reigned in France which turned to a new hope, electing Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Prince President in 1848. After a successful coup d'Etat in 1851, he was elected emperor in 1852.